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Read  what affects visual  perception. Peoples visual perception ability can be different. Some people can, while others cannot see the revelation images.

Need Glasses​

Refractive Errors Difficult Focusing  

  • (the most common cause) Age-related macular degeneration. Such as Cataracts, Diabetic retinopathy. ​​


Form Perception - Click To Read More

  • Ability to perceive objects in the world in response to patterns of light they cast on our retinas.

  • May be affected by age, and is one explanation why people can't see faint lines.

  • In children poor form perception is likely to be diagnosed as a learning disability, since almost all learning requires form perception.

 Publications on age and form perception

Basic Stages of Object Recognition 

  • Stage 1 Processing of basic object components, such as colour, depth, and form.

  • Stage 2 These basic components are then grouped on the basis of similarity, providing information on distinct edges to the visual form. Subsequently, figure-ground segregation is able to take place.

  • Stage 3 The visual representation is matched with structural descriptions in memory.

  • Stage 4 Semantic attributes are applied to the visual representation, providing meaning, and thereby recognition.

  • Reference Cognitive Neuroscience of Visual Object Recognition - Click Here

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Some key points affecting object recognition (but not all click on link above to see more): 

    • Context - Do you know what you are looking for or looking at? What is the background? What is the Context?

    • Familiarity - "Familiarity is a mechanism that is context-free in the sense that what one recognizes just feels familiar without spending time trying to find in what context one knows the object". Have you seen this before? How much familiarity do you have with what you are looking at?

    • Recognition Memory - "When someone sees an object, they know what the object is because they’ve seen it on a past occasion; this is recognition memory."

    • Recollection "shares many similarities with familiarity; however, it is context-dependent, requiring specific information from the inquired incident."

    • Impairments  such as (but not limited to):

      1.  visual object agnosia

      2. developmental prosopagnosia

      3. depth perception  - Click Here - Can be affected by blurry vision for example.

Biedermans Recognition By Components Theory - Click Here 

  • "The first step is edge extraction, which was described by Biederman (1987, p. 117) in the following way: "[There is] an early edge extraction stage, responsive to differences in surface characteristics namely, luminance, texture, or colour, provides a line drawing description of the object." 

  • "The next step is to decide how a visual object should be segmented to establish the number of parts of components of which it consists. Biederman (1987) agreed with Marr and Nishihara (1978) that the concave parts of an object's contour are of particular value in accomplishing the task of segmenting the visual image into parts.

  • The other major element is to decide which edge information from an object possesses the important characteristic of remaining invariant across different viewing angles. According to Biederman (1987), there are five such invariant properties of edges:

  1. Curvature: points on a curve.

  2. Parallel: sets of points in parallel.

  3. Co-termination: edges terminating at a common point.

  4. Co-linearity: points in a straight line."

  • "However, we can generally recognise objects when the conditions are sub-optimal (e.g., an intervening object obscures part of the target object). According to Biederman (1987), there are various reasons why we are able to achieve object recognition in such conditions:

    1. The invariant properties (e.g., curvature; parallel lines) can still be detected even when only parts of edges can be seen.

    2. Provided that the concavities of a contour are visible, there are mechanisms allowing the missing parts of a contour to be restored.

    3. There is normally a considerable amount of redundant information available for recognising complex objects, and so they can still be identified when some of the geons or components are missing (e.g., a giraffe could be identified from its neck even if its legs were hidden from view)."

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Weight Placed on Shape Increases In Strength and Generality From Earliy Childhood to Adulthood - Landau, Smith and Jones ( 1988)

  • The finding from these researchers support what I am observing. My youngest child doesn't have any issues seeing images I show him, where as some adults cannot resolve the images when the have visual noise and the edges of the shape are not evident, clear or complete.

  • Gaurav Malhotra & Jeffrey Bowers Department of Psychological Sciences University of Bristol - The contrasting roles of shape in human vision and convolutional neural networks.


Extract Shape Information Within First 100ms May Be Detrimental To Task  - Baker and Kellman (2018) 

  • "More recently, Baker and Kellman (2018) have shown that participants extract shape information automatically from arrays of dot patterns within the first 100ms of stimulus onset, even for tasks where extracting this information may be detrimental to performance on a task " - Gaurav Malhotra & Jeffrey Bowers Department of Psychological Sciences University of Bristol - The contrasting roles of shape in human vision and convolutional neural networks.


How you see these shapes may depend on your culture | Popular Science (  - Click Here - Does your mind have preference to see concave or convex?

Face Blindness

  • "Some individuals with developmental prosopagnosia  also have problems perceiving other information in the face such as expressions or age while others have problems with fine-grained object recognition " - By Brad Duchaine, PhD 

  • "Face recognition ability can be conceived of as a spectrum running from very poor face recognition to very good face recognition (Wilmer, Germine, Chabris, Chatterjee, Gerbasi, & Nakayama, 2012)" - By Brad Duchaine, PhD 

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